Desparing
星期天, 十月 7, 2007
wiki - 宋美齡
2003年10月25日《紐約時報》以《蔣女士,中國領導人的遗孀,105歲死亡》寫道:
“      雖然蔣女士在美國的公眾輿論裡有一種明星般的形象,富藍克林 ‧羅斯福總統和其它領袖們,對她和她丈夫專制和腐敗的作為感到幻滅。Eleanor羅斯福女士在一場白宮晚餐中,當問到蔣女士中國政府要如何處理煤礦工人罷工問題的時感到驚恐:蔣女士不發一語,用尖銳的指甲在她的脖子前比了一比。
「她可以把民主談得很漂亮,但是,她不知道如何生活在民主政治裡。」羅斯福女士事後說。
……許多國民政府的軍隊因沒有薪水而被迫乞討,但是,美國外交官員們發現,從美國送去中國的軍事補給,有時在一抵達中國就出現在黑市上。
……在上海時,那天蔣女士如常地坐著她的大型加長Limousine上街購物。
……蔣女士很快的在華府引起風潮,她在國會強有力和熱情的演說,引起了如雷的掌聲,她然後橫越整個國家,出現在麥迪遜花園廣場和好萊塢Bowl。
但是她同時卻引起了美國軍人對她的厭惡,尤其是她回到戰時的首都重慶,帶著許多箱的皮箱,其中一個撐開來,露出了裡面奢華的化妝品,私人衣物和時髦昂貴的日用品。……
美國作家默爾·米勒採訪杜魯門總統時,杜魯門氣得大罵:“他們都是賊,個個都他媽的是賊(They're thieves, every damn one of them)……他們從我們給蔣送去的38億美元中偷去7.5億美元。他們偷了這筆錢,而且將這筆錢投資在巴西的聖保羅,以及就在這裡,紐約的房地產。

根據以上內容
個人去查了 nytimes 網路 archives 複製於下
中間的內容完全不同
wiki如此還能夠 說 來源是 nytimes ?
改天會去 圖書館 查看看以前的 報導紀錄

Madame Chiang Kai-shek, a Power in Husband's China and Abroad, Dies at 105

By SETH FAISON
Published: October 25, 2003

Madame Chiang Kai-shek, a pivotal figure in one of the 20th century's great epics -- the struggle for control of post-imperial China waged between the Nationalists and the Communists during the Japanese invasion and the violent aftermath of World War II -- died on Thursday in Manhattan, the Foreign Ministry of Taiwan reported yesterday. She was 105.

Madame Chiang, a dazzling and imperious politician, wielded immense influence in Nationalist China, but she and her husband were eventually forced by the Communist victory into exile in Taiwan, where she presided as the grande dame of Nationalist politics for many years. After Chiang Kai-shek died in 1975, she retreated to New York City, where she spent the rest of her life.

But her old influence overseas was matched, and perhaps exceeded, by the relentless and sophisticated lobbying effort she and her husband set up in Washington, through which they distributed uncounted millions through law firms and public relations companies to promote Taiwan's cause and maintain recognition by the American government.

During the 1950's, Madame Chiang and her husband blamed the United States for the Nationalists' loss of China, and continued to campaign for help from Washington to retake the mainland. Although that hope eventually faded, American support for Taiwan remained strong for years, delaying Washington's recognition of Beijing as the capital of China until 1979, three decades after the Communists seized power.

As a fluent English speaker, as a Christian, as a model of what many Americans hoped China to become, Madame Chiang struck a chord with American audiences as she traveled across the country, starting in the 1930's, raising money and lobbying for support of her husband's government. She seemed to many Americans to be the very symbol of the modern, educated, pro-American China they yearned to see emerge -- even as many Chinese dismissed her as a corrupt, power-hungry symbol of the past they wanted to escape.

Ultimately, that difference in perspectives was perhaps one reason that she fled an increasingly democratic Taiwan, where many people reviled her and where she felt less at home as native Taiwanese eclipsed the exiled mainlanders.

Madame Chiang was the most famous member of one of modern China's most remarkable families, the Soongs, who dominated Chinese politics and finance in the first half of the 20th century. Yet in China it was her American background and style that distinguished Soong Mei-ling; that was her maiden name, sometimes spelled May-ling.

For many Americans, her finest moment came in 1943, when she barnstormed the United States in search of support for the Nationalist cause against Japan, winning donations from countless Americans who were mesmerized by her passion, determination and striking good looks. Her address to a joint meeting of Congress electrified Washington, winning billions of dollars in aid.

She helped create American policy toward China during the war years, running the Nationalist government's propaganda operation and emerging as its most important diplomat. Yet she was also deeply involved in the endless maneuverings of her husband, who was uneasily at the helm of several shifting alliances with Chinese warlords vying for control of what was then a badly fractured nation.

A devout Christian, Madame Chiang spoke fluent English tinted with the Southern accent she acquired as a schoolgirl in Georgia, and she presented a civilized and humane image of a courageous China battling Japanese invasion and Communist subversion. Yet historians have documented the murderous path that Chiang Kai-shek led in his efforts to win, then keep, and ultimately lose power. It also became clear in later years that the Chiang family had pocketed hundreds of millions of dollars of American aid intended for the war.

Madame Chiang had a notoriously tempestuous relationship with her husband, and then with his son by a previous marriage, Chiang Ching-kuo, who became Taiwan's leader after Chiang Kai-shek's death. She had no children.

Her skill as a politician, alternately charming and vicious, made her a formidable presence. She made a play for Taiwan's leadership after Chiang Ching-kuo died in 1988, even though she was 90 and living in New York.

Although she suffered numerous ailments, including breast cancer, she outlived all her contemporary rivals. She was said to credit her religious faith -- she told friends she rose at dawn for an hour of prayer each day -- for her good health.

Gen. Joseph W. Stilwell, who worked closely with her when he commanded American forces in China during the war, described Madame Chiang in his diary as a ''clever, brainy woman.''

''Direct, forceful, energetic,'' he wrote. ''Loves power, eats up publicity and flattery, pretty weak on her history. Can turn on charm at will and knows it.''

Soong Mei-ling's rise to power began when she married Chiang in an opulent ceremony in Shanghai in 1927, bringing together China's star military man with one of the nation's most illustrious families.

Her eldest sister, Soong Ai-ling, directed the family's affairs and innumerable money-making ventures with the help of her husband, H. H. Kung, a scion of one of China's wealthiest banking families.

Madame Chiang's second sister, Soong Qing-ling, was the wife of Sun Yat-sen, China's first president after the last emperor was toppled in 1911. After Sun's death, Soong Qing-ling carried his banner over into the Communist camp, causing an irreparable rupture in the family.

When the vanquished Nationalists retreated to Taiwan in 1949, Soong Qing-ling stayed behind. The Communist Party leadership called her the only true patriot in the Soong family, and appointed her honorary chairman of the People's Republic in 1980, a year before her death.

A Telling Ditty

Today, Chinese still remember the three sisters with a telling ditty: ''One loved money, one loved power, one loved China,'' referring respectively to Ai-ling, Mei-ling and Qing-ling.

Madame Chiang's elder brother, T. V. Soong, often called Nationalist China's financial wizard, served at various times as finance minister, acting prime minister and foreign minister, where his primary role was raising money from America.

Although Madame Chiang developed a stellar image with the American public, President Franklin D. Roosevelt and other leaders became disillusioned with her and her husband's despotic and corrupt practices. Eleanor Roosevelt was shocked at her answer when asked at a dinner at the White House how the Chinese government would handle a strike by coal miners. Madame Chiang silently drew a sharp fingernail across her neck.

''She can talk beautifully about democracy,'' Mrs. Roosevelt said later. ''But she does not know how to live democracy.''

By the end of the war, the loyalty of Nationalist officials melted away as the government grew corrupt and fiscally traitorous, printing money so aggressively that the Chinese currency fell to an exchange rate of several million yuan to the dollar. Many Nationalist soldiers were reduced to begging for food because they went unpaid, yet American diplomats discovered that military supplies sent from the United States to China sometimes appeared on the black market soon after arrival.

During the 1950's, Madame Chiang and her husband continued to campaign for help from Washington to retake the mainland, although That hope eventually faded.

In New York, Madame Chiang lived in an apartment on Gracie Square in Manhattan. In March 1999, as she turned 101, hard of hearing but still quick-witted, she told visitors that she read the Bible and The New York Times every day.

The Soong family's saga, cutting across many strands of modern Chinese history, began when Madame Chiang's father, Charlie Soong, sailed to the United States at the age of 12. Coming from a family of traders in Hainan Island in the South China Sea, Mr. Soong was taken in by Methodists in North Carolina who converted him to Christianity in hopes of sending him back to spread the word of Jesus in China.

After returning to Shanghai in 1886, Mr. Soong, a genial wheeler-dealer, passed up missionary life to start a business printing Bibles, earning a fortune. He also printed political pamphlets secretly for Sun Yat-sen, then working to overthrow China's last emperor. On Jan. 1, 1912, Sun became China's first president.

Sun lasted in office only a few months before his coalition disintegrated, and after he fled to Japan, he hired Mr. Soong's second daughter, Soong Qing-ling, as a secretary. They soon married, despite the age difference: he was 50 and she was 21.

Educated in America

Mei-ling Soong was born in Shanghai on March 5, 1898, although some references give 1897 as the year because Chinese usually consider everyone to be one year old at birth. At the age of 10, she had followed her elder sisters to the Wesleyan College for Women in Macon, Ga.

She entered Wellesley College near Boston in 1913; her brother, T. V., was enrolled at Harvard. She majored in English literature, and was remembered by her classmates as a chubby, vivacious and determined student. She graduated in 1917 and returned to Shanghai speaking English better than Chinese.

She was introduced to her future husband in 1922. By that time, she had matured into a slender beauty and taken to wearing full-length, body-hugging gowns.

Chiang Kai-shek, a severe-looking military aide to Sun who established a school for officers in southern China, may have been as attracted to the Soongs' financial and political connections as he was to their youngest daughter. His initial overtures to her were rebuffed, and after Sun's death in 1925, as Chiang took the title generalissimo and tried to succeed him as the leader of the Nationalist cause, he proposed to Sun's young widow, Soong Qing-ling. She said no.

Chiang allied himself with warlords in southern and central China and with the Soviet Union, where Stalin regarded the Nationalists as more progressive than the warlords who still controlled Beijing and northern China. Communist rebels, not yet led by Mao Zedong, felt they deserved Moscow's support. But Stalin insisted on supporting the Nationalists.

In 1927, Chiang shocked his Soviet backers by carrying out a massacre of leftists in Shanghai. Edgar Snow, the American journalist, estimated that Chiang's forces had executed more than 5,000 people.

The massacre caused a permanent rent in the Soong family. Soong Qing-ling, as Sun's widow, led a faction of Nationalists who voted to expel Chiang from all his posts. T. V. Soong resigned as finance minister, though he was later persuaded to resume his alliance with Chiang.

When Chiang renewed his interest in Soong Mei-ling in 1927, she told him that she would consent to marry only if he could win the approval of her mother, who had reservations about a man who was neither Christian nor single. Chiang had already fathered a son in a marriage that was arranged when he was only 14, and had adopted a second son and married a second wife, Chen Chieh-ru. Chiang promised to convert, and eventually sent Chen away to the United States, where she enrolled at Columbia University and earned a doctorate.

The Chiang-Soong wedding took place in Shanghai on Dec. 1, 1927. A small Christian ceremony was held at the Soong mansion on Seymour Road, followed by a political ceremony at the Majestic Hotel, beneath a portrait of Sun.

As a political partner to her husband, Madame Chiang developed what she called the New Life Movement, a series of principles for modernizing China through social discipline, courtesy and service. She engineered public hygiene campaigns and denounced traditional superstitions.

While many ordinary Chinese resisted it, the campaign was popular with foreigners, particularly with Henry Luce, the publisher of Time magazine, who was born to missionaries in China. A longtime supporter of the Chiangs, Luce named the couple ''Man and Woman of the Year'' in 1938.

During the war with the Japanese, Madame Chiang pushed her husband to build up the Nationalist air force, and helped hire Claire Chennault, who commanded a mercenary force of pilots that came to be known as the Flying Tigers.

During World War II, the relationship between General Stilwell, Chiang and Madame Chiang proved contentious. The general accused Chiang of hoarding resources, deliberately avoiding battle with the Japanese to spare his men to fight the Communists.

Madame Chiang was in the middle, sometimes interceding on General Stilwell's behalf when resisting him threatened American support. But she also plotted against the general, telling journalists that he was incompetent. She and her husband lobbied Washington to have him replaced, and he was, in 1944.

After Japan was defeated in 1945 and the civil war between Nationalists and Communists accelerated, the Communists swiftly expanded their control into the northeast.

The governing Nationalists received considerable American aid, but American officials in China warned of vast amounts of graft among Nationalists. More than $3 billion was appropriated to China during the war, and most of it was transmitted through T. V. Soong, who as China's foreign minister was based in Washington. It later became apparent that the Soong family suffered vicious infighting over the purloined funds.

Madame Chiang traveled to Washington again in November 1948 to plead for emergency aid for the war against the Communists. Yet Congress had recently assigned $1 billion more to China, and President Truman was impatient with the Chiangs and what had become an apparently hopeless effort to shore up the Nationalist government. Madame Chiang never returned to China.

''I can ask the American people for nothing more,'' she said. ''It is either in your hearts to love us, or your hearts have been turned from us.''

In her frustration, she publicly likened American politics to ''clodhopping boorishness.'' Coming after years of generous American support, that irritated Truman.

''They're thieves, every damn one of them,'' Truman said later, referring to Nationalist leaders. ''They stole $750 million out of the billions that we sent to Chiang. They stole it, and it's invested in real estate down in São Paolo and some right here in New York.''

General Chiang resigned as president of Nationalist China in January 1949 and fled to Taiwan that May, taking with him a national art collection that was kept in crates in Taiwan for years as the Chiangs clung to the ever-diminishing hope that they would some day take it back to Beijing.

Over the years, Madame Chiang's health wavered, and in 1976 she was diagnosed with breast cancer and had a mastectomy, and later, a second one.

Her Final Years

Even after she moved to permanent residence in New York, she kept her finger on the pulse of Nationalist politics. She returned to Taiwan after her stepson died in January 1988. Even though she was nearly 90, she tried to rally her old allies. But Lee Teng-hui, chosen as vice president both because he was Taiwan-born and because he was considered a pushover by fellow Nationalists, proved more adept at politics than expected, and he gradually solidified his control.

Madame Chiang lived out her final years in New York, with a pack of black-suited bodyguards who cleared the lobby of her Gracie Square apartment building every time she entered or left. She returned to Congress for one last appearance in 1995.

Until this year, Madame Chiang maintained an annual tradition of receiving a few friends at her Manhattan apartment on her birthday. But this year, she came down with pneumonia, and was was unable to do that, the local Chinese press reported.

Her last public appearance was believed to be in January 2000, when she attended an exhibition of her watercolor paintings of traditional Chinese landscapes at the Queens headquarters of the World Journal, a prominent local Chinese newspaper. She was in a wheelchair, but was reported to be in good spirits, telling people there that she was very happy that day.

Correction: November 17, 2003, Monday An obituary of Mme. Chiang Kai-shek on Oct. 25 and in some late editions on Oct. 24 referred imprecisely to her attempt to influence political control in Taiwan in 1988, after the death of her stepson, Chiang Ching-kuo, who had been president as well as chairman of the ruling Nationalist Party. Mme. Chiang tried unsuccessfully to block his successor as president, Lee Teng-hui, from succeeding him as chairman; she did not seek office for herself, nor was she eligible to do so.


============================================================
以下是可以在網路上找到 少部分的報導
(被 wiki 引用的)
問題是 原稿 還是說 是更正稿 到底是如何呢?

Madame Chiang, 105, Chinese Leader's Widow, Dies - New York Times

Friday, October 24, 2003

By By SETH FAISON

Madame Chiang Kai-shek, a pivotal player in one of the 20th century's great epics - the struggle for control of post-imperial China waged between the Nationalists and the Communists during the Japanese invasion and the violent aftermath of World War II - died on Thursday in New York City, the Foreign Ministry of Taiwan reported early Friday. She was 105 years old.

Madame Chiang, a dazzling and imperious politician, wielded immense influence in Nationalist China, but she and her husband were eventually forced by the Communist victory into exile in Taiwan, where she presided as the grand dame of Nationalist politics for many years. After Chiang Kai-shek died in 1975, Madame Chiang retreated to New York City, where she lived out her last quarter-century.

Madame Chiang was the most famous member of one of modern China's most remarkable families, the Soongs, who dominated Chinese politics and finance in the first half of the century. Yet in China it was her American background and lifestyle that distinguished Soong Mei-ling, her maiden name (which is sometimes spelled May-ling).

For many Americans, Madame Chiang's finest moment came in 1943, when she barnstormed the United States in search of support for the Nationalist cause against Japan, winning donations from countless Americans who were mesmerized by her passion, determination and striking good looks. Her address to a joint meeting of Congress electrified Washington, winning billions of dollars in aid.

Madame Chiang helped craft American policy toward China during the war years, running the Nationalist Government's propaganda operation and emerging as its most important diplomat. Yet she was also deeply involved in the endless maneuverings of her husband, Chiang Kai-shek, who was uneasily at the helm of several shifting alliances with Chinese warlords vying for control of what was then a badly fractured nation.

A devout Christian, Madame Chiang spoke fluent English tinted with the Southern accent she acquired as a school girl in Georgia, and presented a civilized and humane image of a courageous China battling a Japanese invasion and Communist subversion. Yet historians have documented the murderous path that Chiang Kai-shek led in his efforts to win, then keep, and ultimately lose power. It also became clear in later years that the Chiang family had pocketed hundreds of millions of dollars of American aid intended for the war.

Madame Chiang had a notoriously tempestuous relationship with her husband, and then with his son by a previous marriage, Chiang Ching-kuo, who became Taiwan's leader after Chiang Kai-shek's death. Madame Chiang had no children.

Her skill as a politician, alternately charming and vicious, made her a formidable presence. She made a play for Taiwan's leadership after Chiang Ching-kuo died in 1988, even though she was 90 and living in New York at the time.

Although she suffered numerous ailments, including breast cancer, Madame Chiang eventually outlived all her contemporary rivals. She was said to credit her religious faith - she told friends she rose at dawn for an hour of prayer each day - for her good health.

Gen. Joseph W. Stilwell, who worked closely with her when he commanded American forces in China during the war, described Madame Chiang in his diary as a "clever, brainy woman." "Direct, forceful, energetic. Loves power, eats up publicity and flattery, pretty weak on her history. Can turn on charm at will and knows it."

Love of Money, Power and China

Soong Mei-ling's rise to power began when she married Chiang Kai-shek in an opulent ceremony in Shanghai in 1927, bringing together China's star military man with one of the nation's most illustrious families.

Her eldest sister, Soong Ai-ling, directed the family's affairs and innumerable money-making ventures with the help of her husband, H.H. Kung, a scion of one of China's wealthiest banking families.

Madame Chiang's second sister, Soong Qing-ling, was the wife of Sun Yat-sen, China's first president after the last emperor was toppled in 1911. After Sun Yat-sen's death, Soong Qing-ling carried his banner over into the Communist camp, causing an irreparable rupture in the family.

When the vanquished Nationalists retreated to Taiwan in 1949, Soong Qing-ling stayed behind. The Communist Party leadership called her the only true patriot in the Soong family, and named her honorary chairman of the People's Republic in 1980, a year before her death.

Today, Chinese still remember the three sisters with a telling ditty: "One loved money, one loved power, one loved China," referring to Ai-ling, Mei-ling and Qing-ling.

Madame Chiang's elder brother, T.V. Soong, often called Nationalist China's financial wizard, served at various times as China's finance minister, acting prime minister and foreign minister, where his primary role was raising money from the United States.

Although Madame Chiang developed a stellar image with the American public, President Franklin D. Roosevelt and other leaders became disillusioned with her and her husband's despotic and corrupt practices. Eleanor Roosevelt was shocked at Madame Chiang's answer when asked at a dinner at the White House how the Chinese Government would handle a strike by coal miners. Madame Chiang silently drew a sharp fingernail across her neck.

"She can talk beautifully about democracy," Mrs. Roosevelt said later. "But she does not know how to live democracy."

By the end of the war, the loyalty of Nationalist officials melted away as the Government grew corrupt and fiscally traitorous, printing money so aggressively that the Chinese currency fell to an exchange rate of several million yuan to the dollar. Many Nationalist soldiers were reduced to begging for food because they went unpaid, yet American diplomats discovered that military supplies sent from the United States to China sometimes appeared on the black market soon after arrival.

Even at the busiest times of war, Madame Chiang often left her husband and disappeared into seclusion in New York for months at a time. The Chiang camp was too secretive to deny rumors about marital troubles, but Madame Chiang's retreats may also have been caused by a debilitating skin condition.

During the 1950's, Madame Chiang and her husband blamed the United States for the Nationalist loss of China, and continued to campaign for help from Washington to retake the mainland. Although that hope eventually faded, American support for Taiwan remained strong for years, delaying Washington's recognition of Beijing as the capital of China until 1979, three decades after the Communists had seized power.

By then, Madame Chiang had moved to New York, where she lived in an apartment on Gracie Square in Manhattan. In March 1999, as she turned 101, hard of hearing but still quick-witted, she told visitors that she read the Bible and The New York Times every day. gfobsubhdA Family's DivisionsReflect a Nation's

The Soong family's saga, a story that cuts across many strands of modern Chinese history, began when Madame Chiang's father, Charlie Soong, sailed to the United States at the age of 12. Coming from a family of traders in Hainan Island in the South China Sea, Mr. Soong was taken in by Methodists in North Carolina and converted to Christianity in hopes of sending him back to spread the word of Jesus in China.

After returning to Shanghai in 1886, Mr. Soong, a genial wheeler-dealer, passed up missionary life to start a business printing Bibles, earning a fortune. He also printed political pamphlets secretly for Sun Yat-sen, then working to overthrow China's last emperor. On Jan. 1, 1912, Sun was named China's first president.

Sun lasted in office only a few months before his coalition disintegrated, and after he fled to Japan, he hired Charlie Soong's second daughter, Soong Qing-ling, as a secretary. They soon married, despite the age difference: he was 50 and she was 21.

At the time Mei-ling Soong, who was born in Shanghai in 1898, was already studying in the United States. At the age of 10, she had followed her elder sisters to the Wesleyan College for Women in Macon, Ga.

She entered Wellesley College near Boston in 1913; her brother, T.V., was enrolled at Harvard. She majored in English literature, and was remembered by her classmates as a chubby, vivacious and determined student. She graduated in 1917 and returned to Shanghai speaking English better than Chinese.

She was introduced to her future husband in 1922. By that time, she had matured into a slender beauty and taken to wearing full-length body-hugging gowns.

Chiang Kai-shek, a severe-looking military aide to Sun Yat-sen who established a school for officers in southern China, may have been as attracted to the Soongs' financial and political connections as he was to their youngest daughter. His initial overtures to her were rebuffed, and after Sun's death in 1925, as Chiang Kai-shek took the title Generalissimo and tried to succeed him as the leader of the Nationalist cause, he proposed to Sun's young widow, Soong Qing-ling. She said no.

General Chiang allied himself with warlords in southern and central China and with the Soviet Union, where Stalin regarded the Nationalists as more progressive than the warlords who still controlled Beijing and northern China. Communist rebels, not yet led by Mao Zedong, felt they deserved Moscow's support. But Stalin insisted on supporting the Nationalists.

In 1927 General Chiang shocked his Soviet backers by carrying out a massacre of leftists in Shanghai. Edgar Snow, the American journalist, estimated that General Chiang's forces executed more than 5,000 people.

The massacre caused a permanent rent in the Soong family. Soong Qing-ling, as Sun Yat-sen's widow, led a faction of Nationalists who voted to expel General Chiang from all his posts. T.V. Soong resigned as finance minister, though he was later persuaded to resume his alliance with General Chiang.

General Chiang also allied himself with Shanghai's notorious underworld, then led by an opium-dealing gangster named Du Yuesheng, widely known as Big-Eared Du. In a fractious city, separated into sectors run by competing foreign powers, Du was the most powerful man, dominating banking, smuggling and opium.

A Suitable Husband and Dubious Friends

When General Chiang renewed his interest in Soong Mei-ling in 1927, she told him that she would consent to marry only if he could win the approval of her mother, who had reservations about a man who was neither Christian nor single. General Chiang had already fathered a son in a marriage that was arranged when he was only 14, and had adopted a second son and married a second wife, Chen Chieh-ru. General Chiang promised to convert, and eventually sent Chen away to the United States, where she enrolled at Columbia University and earned a doctorate.

The Chiang-Soong wedding took place in Shanghai on Dec. 1, 1927. A small Christian ceremony was held at the Soong mansion on Seymour Road, followed by a political ceremony at the Majestic Hotel, beneath a portrait of Sun Yat-sen.

According to the North China News, the event was a highlight of Shanghai's social calendar, attended by more than 1,300 of the cosmopolitan city's elite. A photograph shows Chiang Kai-shek in a morning suit, with a thin stubble of hair on his head. Madame Chiang looks like a 1920's coquette, with a white lace veil crawling down her forehead to her eyebrows.

Madame Chiang became a true political partner to her husband, traveling with him, advising him on military and political matters, turning her charm on allies and foes alike. Chiang spoke almost no English, though his wife taught him to call her "darling," and she served as his interpreter, often interspersing her own views.

However, she was continually reminded of the limits of the general's authority. Ilona Ralf Sues, a Polish journalist who worked briefly for Madame Chiang and later wrote "Shark Fins and Millet," documenting the treacherous politics of Shanghai, described how Madame Chiang was kidnapped by "Big-Eared Du" after she tried to convince her husband that as the leader of the Nationalists, he no longer needed to pay protection money to Du's underworld operation, the Green Gang.

Madame Chiang went out shopping in her limousine one afternoon, and did not return home by evening. When Du was reached on the phone, he said that Madame Chiang was fine, but that she had been found motoring alone in the streets of Shanghai, "a very imprudent thing to do considering the ever-present hazards." Money changed hands, and Madame Chiang was henceforth cautious with the Green Gang.

Madame Chiang's highly political life was often lonely, according to Ms. Sues. "She had admirers, but no true friends," she wrote of Madame Chiang in 1944. "She wants to be First Lady of the World."

Madame Chiang developed what she called the New Life Movement, a series of principles for modernizing China through social discipline, courtesy and service. She engineered public hygiene campaigns and denounced traditional superstitions.

While many ordinary Chinese resisted it, the campaign was popular with foreigners, particularly with Henry Luce, the publisher of Time, who was born to missionaries in China. He named the couple "Man and Woman of the Year" in 1938.

Madame Chiang pushed her husband to build up the Nationalist air force, and helped hire Claire Chennault, who commanded a mercenary force of pilots that came to be known as the Flying Tigers.

Madame Chiang also helped defuse one of the gravest crises of her husband's career, when he was kidnapped by rebellious generals in December 1936 in what came to be known as the Xian Incident.

Their rebels' leader, Gen. Zhang Xueliang, had long advocated better efforts at fighting the Japanese, who had gained control of Manchuria in 1931 and continued to make inroads in northern China, and criticized General Chiang's preoccupation with the Chinese Communist forces then based in China's northwest.

When General Chiang refused to redirect his military focus, General Zhang engineered a kidnapping at dawn on Dec. 4 at a hot springs resort where General Chiang was camped. General Chiang tried to escape in his nightclothes, badly injured his back scaling a back wall, and was found hours later, cowering and shivering between some rocks up a hill, minus his false teeth.

General Chiang refused to negotiate with his captors. Yet as Madame Chiang deliberated with other Nationalist leaders in the capital, Nanjing, it became apparent that some of General Chiang's rivals were advocating a military strike that could end in General Chiang's death. Madame Chiang flew to Xian to help mediate.

Communist leaders were also called in, and they were split over whether to execute General Chiang or to follow Stalin's instructions to unite with the Nationalists against the Japanese. Weeks of murky negotiations ensued. Finally, after T.V. Soong authorized a large payment to insure General Chiang's release, an agreement was reached on Dec. 31.

Retribution against General Zhang was swift and lasted a lifetime. General Chiang placed him under house arrest, where he was kept, on the Chinese mainland and then in Taiwan, until he was in his 90's. He later moved to Hawaii, where he remained until his death in 2001.

Diva-Like Petulance and a Winning Way

During the war, the relationship among General Stilwell, Madame Chiang and Chiang Kai-shek proved contentious. Stilwell accused General Chiang of hoarding resources, deliberately avoiding battle with the Japanese to spare his men to fight the Communists.

Madame Chiang was in the middle, sometimes interceding on Stilwell's behalf when resisting him threatened American support. But she also plotted against Stilwell, telling journalists that he was incompetent. She and her husband lobbied Washington to have Stilwell replaced, and he was, in 1944.

Madame Chiang also emerged as China's most important ambassador, frequently charming American visitors like Wendell Willkie, the Republican politician, who came to China in 1942 after losing a presidential campaign against Roosevelt in 1940.

"There is little doubt that Little Sister has accomplished one of her easiest conquests," wrote John Paton Davies, an American diplomat, apparently referring to the way Madame Chiang took advantage of Mr. Willkie's lack of access to women in wartime China. "It's interesting the influence which enforced celibacy has on his judgment - and the course of political events."

According to Sterling Seagrave, who wrote a scathing portrait of Madame Chiang in his racy history, "The Soong Dynasty," she was also capable of diva-like petulance. Madame Chiang was in New York in 1943 when she learned that Winston Churchill was on his way to Washington. She suggested that the British Prime Minister stop in New York to see her. He responded that she should join him for lunch with Roosevelt in Washington.

Churchill recalled with some amusement in his history of the war that she turned him down "with some hauteur." "In the regrettable absence of Madame Chiang Kai-shek, the President and I lunched alone in his room and made the best of things," he wrote.

Madame Chiang made a splash in Washington soon afterward. She spoke forcefully and passionately to Congress, winning a roaring ovation. She then traveled across the country, appearing at Madison Square Garden and at the Hollywood Bowl.

But she earned the enmity of American G.I.'s when she returned to China's wartime capital, Chungking, with several suitcases, one of which plopped open to reveal luxurious cosmetics, lingerie and fancy groceries.

It was a small sign of the growing corruption within the Nationalists that would speed their undoing. After Japan was defeated in 1945 and the civil war between Nationalists and Communists accelerated, the Communists swiftly expanded their control into the northeast.

The Nationalists received considerable American aid, but as John Service, a longtime Foreign Service officer in China, warned in a memorandum about General Chiang: "He has achieved and maintained his position in China by his supreme skill in balancing man against man and group against group, and his adroitness as a military politician rather than as a military commander, and by reliance on a gangster secret police."

Other American officials in China also warned against the vast amounts of graft among Nationalists. More than $3 billion was appropriated to China during the war, and most of it was transmitted through T.V. Soong, who as China's foreign minister was based in Washington. It later became apparent that the Soong family suffered vicious infighting over the purloined funds.

Madame Chiang traveled to Washington again in November 1948 to plead for emergency aid for the war against the Communists. Yet Congress had recently assigned another $1 billion to China, and President Truman was impatient with the Chiangs and what had become an apparently hopeless effort to shore up the Nationalist Government. Madame Chiang never returned to China.

"I can ask the American people for nothing more," she said. "It is either in your hearts to love us, or your hearts have been turned from us."

In her frustration, she publicly likened American politics to 'clodhopping boorishness." Coming after years of generous American support, that irritated Truman.

"They're thieves, every damn one of them," Mr. Truman said later, referring to Nationalist leaders. "They stole $750 million out of the billions that we sent to Chiang. They stole it, and it's invested in real estate down in S?o Paolo and some right here in New York."

General Chiang resigned as president of Nationalist China in January 1949 and fled to Taiwan that May, taking with him a national art collection that was kept in crates in Taiwan for years as the Chiangs clung to the ever-diminishing hope that they would some day take it back to Beijing.

In the United States, the Chiangs set up what would become one of the most sophisticated lobbying efforts ever in Washington, learning how to distribute millions of dollars indirectly through law firms and public relations companies. The operation continues today.

Madame Chiang made several trips to the United States in the 1950's to oppose efforts by the People's Republic of China to win a seat at the United Nations. Only in 1971 did the United Nations allow the government of the world's most populous country to be represented, a prelude to President Nixon's trip to Beijing in 1972.

After Nixon met Jiang Qing, a radical leftist who was Mao's wife, he wrote that she seemed the opposite of Madame Chiang: severe on the outside, but weak within; Madame Chiang had a soft appearance, but was steely inside.

Madame Chiang's health wavered over the years, and in 1976 she was diagnosed with breast cancer and had a mastectomy, and later, a second one.

Even after she moved to permanent residence in New York after Chiang Kai-shek's death in 1975, Madame Chiang kept her finger on the pulse of Nationalist politics. She returned to Taiwan after her stepson died in January 1988. Even though she was nearly 90, Madame Chiang tried to rally her old allies. But Lee Teng-hui, chosen as vice president both because he was Taiwan-born and because he was considered a pushover by fellow Nationalists, proved more adept at politics than expected, and he gradually solidified his control.

Madame Chiang lived out her final years in New York, with a pack of black-suited bodyguards who cleared the lobby of her Gracie Square apartment building every time she entered or left. She returned to Congress for one last appearance in 1995.

Her life gradually grew quiet, as friends preceded her to the grave. She stopped visiting a family estate on Long Island in Lattingtown, where she had often spent time with her younger relatives.
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rural 發表於 9:03 AM

迴響留言
幾十年前的中國,還有已經不在世間的人又被挖出來討論,看來影響真是無界弗遠
由 6年級 發表於 11:17, Oct 7, 2007
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so?
由 r 發表於 15:04, Oct 8, 2007
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這篇文章中的記者報導過去政治中虛假的一面(現在大概也是吧),但大罵特罵之後不知所謂其何…2003年離2次世界大戰已過去那麼久,人死後才說這些不知道是要做什麼,這世上除了共產黨醜化蔣氏之外大概也只有自翊正義之士對老蔣家族有意見吧,死後不停的進行意識形態方面的鞭屍…不在世間的人又不時的被挖出來臭罵,所以說蔣氏家族影響深遠…,不曉得為何不管好壞, 人們都記得他們,蔣氏家族唯一的錯大概就是從戰勝國變成戰敗國又逃到台灣…,要是當初投降搞不好還有像宋慶齡在中國一樣的地位吧... 淺見~隨便說說。
由 6年級 發表於 18:45, Oct 8, 2007
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請問你有沒有把兩個版本讀完
還是 妳只有看 最上面 wiki 引用的 中文部分
wiki 翻譯引用的那部份 的確沒翻錯
問題是 翻的版本 跟 紐約時報 網路上 正文 版本 天差地遠

個人寫這篇文章主要目的在於
wiki 內容 "引用 自 紐約時報"
但是 紐約時報上 內容卻完全不一樣
不知道是 紐約時報 刊登出來後 發現內容不妥 改版了
還是說 根本就是 存有另外一個 仿造的 版本 ?

如果是 存有 所謂 仿造版本 那 wiki 如此引用 便有缺失
如果是 紐約時報 發現內容不妥 進而 改版
那麼 wiki 引用的內容 不是也應該 拿掉?

基本上 個人認同 妳寫的

不過這邊主要想表達的是
wiki 此篇文章 內容的不妥

:)
由 r 發表於 3:42, Oct 10, 2007
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基本上 也沒有天差地遠
不過有一些段落 不一樣

個人認為這篇文章(Madame Chiang, 105, Chinese Leader's Widow, Dies)是有一些缺失
在且 該內容 的確是 以美國人的角度來看
以及一些不確定的來源...

總之呢
個人認為
wiki 引用 該文 不妥 就對了

至於個人對於 蔣家的意見
蔣 宋家 我是不熟
不過至少以 個人了解的 宋美齡女士
還有 先總統 蔣中正 蔣經國 等
個人對於她們的 是抱持 正面感覺的
同時也認為 如同您所說的
很多都是 意識形態的鞭屍
也因此 個人對於 現任總統的 所謂 正名化活動
非常不能認同
由 r 發表於 4:18, Oct 10, 2007
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當初投降的話
蔣家基本上 是不會有好結果的

可是個人認為 不投降 是 名智的決定
不管 出發點是 個人 還是 從 中華民族的角度



真搞不懂 為什麼一堆人
都很喜歡把 蔣家 醜化
把 一些事情醜化
由 r 發表於 4:24, Oct 10, 2007
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這個報導實際上滿"不行"的

2003年10月25日《紐約時報》以《蔣女士,中國領導人的遗孀,105歲死亡》寫道:
“ 雖然蔣女士在美國的公眾輿論裡有一種明星般的形象,富藍克林 ‧羅斯福總統和其它領袖們,對她和她丈夫專制和腐敗的作為感到幻滅。Eleanor羅斯福女士在一場白宮晚餐中,當問到蔣女士中國政府要如何處理煤礦工人罷工問題的時感到驚恐:蔣女士不發一語,用尖銳的指甲在她的脖子前比了一比
「她可以把民主談得很漂亮,但是,她不知道如何生活在民主政治裡。」羅斯福女士事後說。

我覺得這只是一種外國作風的幽默, 難道真有人會笨到在外人面前說自已要宰人嗎????

……許多國民政府的軍隊因沒有薪水而被迫乞討,但是,美國外交官員們發現,從美國送去中國的軍事補給,有時在一抵達中國就出現在黑市上。

在現今不管台灣還是中國甚至世界各國不是都有不為人知的敗類在幹這些事嗎,最慘的是被抓包了還判無罪,把這個也加進去~~這套很像當年共產黨搞的那一套,現在也還在搞,動不動就說法輪功是鞋教,我覺得只是名字比較鞋一點,因為"金輪法王"有練龍象般若功 \O/=>

……在上海時,那天蔣女士如常地坐著她的大型加長Limousine上街購物。
……蔣女士很快的在華府引起風潮,她在國會強有力和熱情的演說,引起了如雷的掌聲,她然後橫越整個國家,出現在麥迪遜花園廣場和好萊塢Bowl。
但是她同時卻引起了美國軍人對她的厭惡,尤其是她回到戰時的首都重慶,帶著許多箱的皮箱,其中一個撐開來,露出了裡面奢華的化妝品,私人衣物和時髦昂貴的日用品。……

人因有材招人忌,一個女人能因才幹引起美國軍人厭惡,大概是前無古人吧,女生有化粧品是很正常的事,還有一大堆吶,這點就跟男人喜歡炫燿自已有很多女朋友是一樣,而沒有的就會虧別人,這就是那些小氣鬼幹的事

美國作家默爾·米勒採訪杜魯門總統時,杜魯門氣得大罵:“他們都是賊,個個都他媽的是賊(They're thieves, every damn one of them)……他們從我們給蔣送去的38億美元中偷去7.5億美元。他們偷了這筆錢,而且將這筆錢投資在巴西的聖保羅,以及就在這裡,紐約的房地產。

你覺得一國的元首會這樣說嗎? 要是某人也許可能,如果意指黑錢的話,那為什麼美國總統沒人出面指控?還是之後再台灣軍購時再黑回來就好了?
這時大概有會有人說,你看吧!老蔣能一手遮天哪……不過如果真有人這麼說的話,我真的是服了他~~


可見這種無厘頭報導還是要認看一下,順便加強自已看文章的能力
由 6年級 發表於 20:00, Oct 10, 2007
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身為歷史人物,哪有什麼鞭不鞭屍的
台灣人唸了幾十年蔣家宣導文當歷史
總要面對歷史的真相
首先美國人也許無法完全客觀(Objective)
但是他們會朝平衡報導去作試圖做到公平(Fair)
對於上面幾位指責NYT來源不確定,請問根據在哪?
這種說法就是在指責這篇NYT的報導捏造事實,根據小弟看NYT的經驗,如果有報導錯誤或不適當之處,NYT都會有更正或是道歉啟事,並不會像台灣的中時跟聯合發生過的被踢爆捏造新聞後就偷偷把文章從網頁上拿掉的作法.
不合你的心意就把作者抹黑.今天NYT的地位能夠允許他引用沒求證的事實?
"我覺得這只是一種外國作風的幽默, 難道真有人會笨到在外人面前說自已要宰人嗎?"
Although Madame Chiang developed a stellar image with the American public, President Franklin D. Roosevelt and other leaders became disillusioned with her and her husband's despotic and corrupt practices. Eleanor Roosevelt was shocked at her answer when asked at a dinner at the White House how the Chinese government would handle a strike by coal miners. Madame Chiang silently drew a sharp fingernail across her neck.

''She can talk beautifully about democracy,'' Mrs. Roosevelt said later. ''But she does not know how to live democracy.''
以小弟不才看了一陣子NYT的經驗,記者作報導的基本素養就是報導事實陳述事實,這裡哪裡有ironic的語氣,
以NYT的地位可以亂虎爛Eleanor Roosevelt說過的話不被美國人抓包幹言焦.
看報導前就先抱著排斥的心理去看,這樣只怕是自欺欺人,

''They're thieves, every damn one of them,'' Truman said later, referring to Nationalist leaders. ''They stole $750 million out of the billions that we sent to Chiang. They stole it, and it's invested in real estate down in São Paolo and some right here in New York.''
"你覺得一國的元首會這樣說嗎? 要是某人也許可能"
以NYT的地位可以亂虎爛杜魯門說過的話不被美國人抓包幹言焦.

不要再騙自己了,Reality bites.You just can not face it.
Scott 發表於 2:20, Nov 4, 2007
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首先呢 該怎麼講
妳有沒有 仔細讀?
看到妳這種回應就覺得 沒什麼好講
作者表達的東西是什麼? 根本沒有了解 就在批評

ok ... 我來慢慢回答妳吧
========
Q: 對於上面幾位指責NYT來源不確定,請問根據在哪?
A1: 我指責的是 wiki 上面 引用 寫 來源自 NYT .... 可是 該引用文裡面的 資訊
在 NYT 該文章上 並沒有出現 .... 也就是 "胡亂編造" 的引用?
還是說是 "NYT 第一版(第二篇) 是這樣寫 但是 卻發現有錯 進而更改為 第二版(第一篇)?"
(妳要是有仔細看上面 兩個版本的 文章 就會發縣 兩篇雖有很大的不同 但也有很多地方相同)

A2: 至於個人所說來源不確定 乃是指 第一版的 NYT (如果 真的是 改版前 與改版後)
妳要是仔細讀 在我引用的 第一版(第二篇)裡面 .... 會發現 內容很多地方 直得懷疑
========
Q: 不合你的心意就把作者抹黑.今天NYT的地位能夠允許他引用沒求證的事實?
A: 我覺得 妳沒搞清楚 就在抹黑我 .... 更何況 個人並沒有抹黑 NYT
========
" 以小弟不才看了一陣子NYT的經驗,記者作報導的基本素養就是報導事實陳述事實,這裡哪裡有ironic的語氣, .... "
....
妳有沒有看懂?
下面那個 回應 說的是 蔣夫人的 動作 乃是 外國式的幽默
而非 Eleanor 說的話 是外國式幽默
========
妳回應別人時 自己預設的立場也太多了吧

========
不要再騙自己了,Reality bites.You just can not face it.
--- 我只想說 妳該先 把事情搞清楚 才來講這句話

另外
客觀 以及 公平
要知道 很多事情都很主觀的 也很不公平的
就如同妳的回應 ....
由 r 發表於 16:14, Nov 14, 2007
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